- Any patient who has difficulty breathing or a SaO2 < 93% should be given oxygen.
- Patients with mild respiratory distress (respiratory rate <25, no cyanosis, and no use of accessory muscles) may be given oxygen by nasal cannula at 4-6 LPM to maintain an oxygen saturation of 94-99%
- Patients with moderate respiratory distress (with or without cyanosis and/or using accessory muscles while breathing) should be given oxygen by a non-rebreather mask at 10-15 LPM. Liter flow should be enough to maintain inflation of the reservoir with oxygen and to maintain an oxygen saturation of 94-99%.
- Infants and newborns should have oxygen administered by the blow-by method.
Patients with severe respiratory distress should be assisted with ventilations by use of a bag-valve-mask with reservoir and supplemental oxygen (an oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal airway should be inserted if tolerated). Oxygen should be set to 15 LPM.
Spontaneously breathing patients who are suspected to have been exposed to carbon monoxide or who are suspected of having a pneumothorax should receive oxygen by a non-rebreather mask at 10-15 LPM. Liter flow should be enough to maintain inflation of the reservoir with oxygen./li>